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Chennai, once Madras, city, capital of state, southern Asian nation, on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of geographical region. Referred to as the “Gateway to South Asian nation,” metropolis could be a major body and cultural centre. Pop. (2001) town, 4,343,645; urban population: 6,560,242.


Armenian and Portuguese traders were living within the San Thome space of what’s currently current metropolis before the arrival of nation in 1639. Madras was the shortened name of the fishing village Madraspatnam, wherever nation East Indies Company engineered a fort and manufacturing plant (trading post) in 1639–40. At that point, the weaving of cotton materials was an area business, and therefore the English invited the weavers and native merchants to settle close to the fort. By 1652 the manufacturing plant of Fort St. patron saint was recognized as a presidency (an social unit ruled by a president), and between 1668 and 1749 the corporate swollen its management. About 1801, by which era the last of the native rulers had been sheared of his powers, English people had become masters of southern Asian nation, and Madras had become their body and industrial capital. the govt of state formally modified the name of the town to metropolis in 1996.

The modern town Madras developed while not a thought from its 17th-century core, shaped by Fort St. patron saint and therefore the Indian quarters. To the north and northwest square measure the economic square measures; the most residential areas are to the west and south, wherever variety of recent high-rise lodging buildings are created, and therefore the previous villages square measure within the centre. the foremost distinctive buildings within the town square measure the seven massive temples within the Dravidian vogue, set within the town sections of patron saint city, Mylapore, and Triplicane. The Chepauk Palace (the former residence of the nabob [Mughal ruler] of Karnataka) and therefore the University Senate House, each within the Deccan Muslim vogue, and therefore the Victoria Technical Institute and therefore the supreme court buildings, each within the Indo-Saracenic vogue, square measure usually thought-about the foremost enticing buildings of nation amount.

Chennai and its suburbs have quite 600 Hindu temples. The oldest is that the Parthasarathi Temple inbuilt the eighth century by Pallava kings. The Kapaleeswarar Temple (16th century) is devoted to the Hindu god Shiva. Different places of worship among the town embody Luz Church (1547–82), one in every of the oldest churches in Chennai; St. Mary’s Church (1678–80), the primary British church in India; the San Thome Basilica (1898), engineered over the place of the apostle St. Thomas; and Wallajah house of prayer (1795), engineered by the nabob of Mysore. The Christian church of the Holy Virgin Mary (1772), within the patron saint city section of metropolis, surrounds a grounds land site with Armenian tombstones geological dating from the mid-17th century. The international headquarters of the belief Society is set in gardens between the Adyar watercourse and therefore the coast. Of specific interest there’s a banyan tree geological dating from concerning 1600.

Since the late Nineties, software package development and physical science producing have created up the majority of Chennai’s economy. Various technology parks, wherever several foreign corporations have offices, square measure found throughout the town. Different major industries embody the manufacture of vehicles, rubber, fertilizer, leather, iron ore, and cotton textiles. Wheat, machinery, iron and steel, and raw cotton square measure foreign. there’s Associate in Nursing refinery in metropolis. Services, particularly finance and commercial enterprise, are important. Hotels, luxury resorts, restaurants, marinas, and parks line dock Beach, the metropolis town.

Chennai has various instructional establishments. Skilled education will be obtained within the state medical and veterinary sciences schools, the colleges of engineering and technology, the state Isai Kalluri music faculty, the school of Arts and Crafts, and therefore the teacher-training schools. The city has the University of Madras (1857), that has many advanced centres of analysis. The Indian Institute of Technology, the Central animal skin analysis Institute, and therefore the Regional Laboratories of the Council of Scientific and Industrial analysis square measure different noteworthy scientific establishments.

The M.S. Swaminathan analysis Foundation focuses on agricultural development in metropolis and state. Since the Nineteen Eighties metropolis has emerged jointly of the leading medical centres of the country. This was a result of the proliferation of personal specialty hospitals, particularly those which offer treatment for viscus and eye ailments. Among the leading medical facilities within the town square measure the Apollo Hospital, the Madras Medical Mission’s Institute of vessel Diseases, the Sri Rama University Hospital, the guts Institute of metropolis, and therefore the Shankara Nethralaya (“Temple of the Eye”), an eye fixed hospital. Cultural establishments in metropolis embody the Madras Music Academy, dedicated to the encouragement of Karnatak music—the music of Mysore, the historical region between the southern Coromandel Coast of the Bay of geographical region and therefore the Deccan tableland.

The Kalakshetra could be a centre of dance and music, and therefore the Rasika Ranjini Sabha, in Mylapore, encourages the theatrical arts. the town has coaching centres for kuchipudi and bharata natyam (Indian classical dance forms). Kalakshetra and Sri Krishna Gana Sabha, a cultural establishment, each host annual dance festivals. The residential area city of Kodambakkam, with its various film studios, is represented because the Hollywood of southern Asian nation. 3 theatres—the Children’s Theatre, the Annamalai Manram, and therefore the deposit Theatre—are widespread. The metropolis Government deposit has exhibitions on the history and physical aspects of state. there’s a tiny low assortment of East Indies Company antiquities within the Fort deposit (within Fort St. George) and a set of paintings within the National picture gallery.